The Pyramids most ancient and famous in the world

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Martí Micolau

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The pyramids are very ancient buildings and equally mysterious. Are they buildings destined to eternally house the remains of the great kings of the past? They were used as astronomical observatories? Do they represent man's need and will to get as close as possible to the gods of heaven? And especially, how they were built using the technologies of the time? Archaeologists, historians and anthropologists have always wondered about these questions. It is certain that giving a precise date on the construction or the completion of the work is practically impossible. Scholars, therefore, make an estimate based on various data collected and provide an approximate dating, trying to be as precise as possible.

How were the pyramids built?

The best known are, without doubt, the Egyptian pyramids, but also the Sumerian ziqqurat or the great temples of Central America. Different in appearance and grandeur, however, they share one big question. How were they built? Even the most recent of the pyramids was built by people who did not possess any kind of technology, at least in the modern sense of the term. First of all, one wonders how simple workers, almost with bare hands, could have extracted and transported, sometimes for kilometers, the huge blocks of stone that make up these huge buildings. According to the most recent of theories, the blocks, once extracted, were placed on a sort of sled, then made to slide on the specially wet sand. Does this seem too simple a solution? What is certain is that, to complete the entire process, the powerful who decided to build the pyramids used the effort of hundreds of unpaid workers, or slaves. To support this theory there would be several wall paintings inside the same pyramids.

But now let's find out what they are, according to estimates, the oldest pyramidsEtc.

10 - Pyramid of Sahura, around 2480 BC

  • Where it is: Abu Sir, Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

The Abu Sir pyramids are much more moderate in size than the "big sisters" of the Giza plateau. They are also definitely less well known, which makes them more suggestive. The pyramid of Sahura is the tomb of the first pharaoh of the th dynasty and is the best preserved of the entire site. Scholars think that it was originally much larger, but that time and atmospheric agents have greatly damaged it.

9 - Pyramid of Menkaure, about 2500 BC

  • Where is it: Giza plateau, Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

It is the smallest of the three famous pyramids of the Giza plateau, reaching one-tenth the size of the Pyramid of Cheops. In the days of its former glory the pyramid was presumably all covered with red Aswan granite. The quarries of this material are about 900 kilometers away! There has been much discussion as to why this pyramid was so much smaller than the other two nearby. To date it is believed that, since the three pyramids of Giza reproduce the three stars of the belt of the Orion constellation, that of Menkaure you represent the star Mintaka, the smallest of the three.

8 - Pyramid of Chefren, about 2500 BC

  • Where is it: Giza plateau, Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

It is another pyramid present in the Giza plateau and is smaller than that of his father, Cheops, but due to the elevated position, it seems higher. Pyramids made by this family are considered the most majestic in the history of Egypt.

7 - Pyramid of Cheops, 2560 BC

  • Where is it: Giza plateau, Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

Anyone who visits it must know that it is in front of a true prodigy of mathematics and engineering. This majestic tomb was built to house the eternal rest of the great pharaoh Cheops, embalmed and buried in what was thought to be a "ship" that carried the soul of the deceased to the afterlife.

6 - Red Pyramid, about 2580 BC

  • Where is it: Dahshur, Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

Also called the North Pyramid, it is the third Egyptian pyramid in order of height, after those of Cheops and Chefren. Its realization was ordered by the pharaoh Snefru, the founder of the fourth dynasty. It is called red due to its color, different from the original one. In ancient times, in fact, it was covered with a coating of white Tura limestone, which was then used in medieval times to build the city of Cairo. The red material is none other than the sandstone below.

5 - Rhomboidal Pyramid, 2580 BC

  • Where is it: Dahshur, Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

This pyramid is called rhomboid or double slope as its construction is very particular. It does not have a classic pyramid shape but rather its sides have a double inclination. Due to the design change while the pyramid was still under construction, the inclination went from the initial 54 ° of the outer walls to the next 43 °. The initial height should also have been 128,5 meters but after the change in slope it reached that of 105 meters.

4 - Pyramid of Meidum, 2580 BC

  • Where is it: Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

The pyramid of Meidum rises about 70 km south of Cairo and represents one of the last step pyramids of Egypt. Today it appears more with the appearance of a tower, about 75 meters high, surrounded by a kind of hill composed of stone debris. Scholars have determined that the pyramid underwent a series of changes in the course of its life, works that transformed it, over time, into a real pyramid with triangular faces. Originally this pyramid must have been about 92 meters high.

3 - Caral, 2600 BC

  • Where is it: Peru
  • Original function: Religious Building, Temple

The archaeological site of Caral is one of the oldest in the world, the town is also the oldest in all of Peru. At this complex center you can see a very large central public space, where the remains of ben stand six pyramidal mounds large. The largest of these pyramids measures approximately 60 meters in height. Here, too, it is interesting to note the refinement of the technology used by the builders: despite the fact that they are now about 5 thousand years old, the pyramids have remained in good condition after all, even despite the frequent earthquakes.

2 - Pyramid of Djoser, 2667-2648 BC

  • Where is it: Saqqara, Egypt
  • Original function: Tomb

The pyramid is part of the funerary complex of Djoser or Zoser, king of Egypt who reigned from about 2667 to 2648 BC. The pyramid is work of the famous priest Imhotep, the first great and true architect in history. Despite its height, which does not hold a candle to the majestic constructions of Giza, this building is important from an architectural point of view. In fact, it represents a unique evolution in the history of world architecture.

1 - Brazilian pyramids, 3000 BC

  • Where is it: Brazil
  • Original function: Religious purposes

According to the latest news, the oldest pyramids in the world are not found in Egypt, but in Brazil! It should be noted, however, that discoveries of this type have been occurring for years, and many other archaeologists or scholars claim to have discovered the oldest. There are, in fact, very ancient pyramids that are also played for primacy in Bosnia, Indonesia or even in Antarctica. It should also be emphasized that the precise dating of the pyramids of Giza has never been established with certainty. Just like the other pyramids around the world, even the Brazilian ones they would have had religious purposes. In fact, hundreds of human remains and tombs have been discovered near the buildings. Archaeologists also claim that in addition to predating the Egyptian pyramids by many years, the Brazilian ones they were built with a completely different method. The Egyptian ones, in fact, had a predefined structure from a very specific project, the Brazilian ones were completed over time in different phases. The material used is also different: instead of stone, the ancient Brazilian peoples used the shells.

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