We have all heard of at least once in our life mysterious Nazca lines, lines visible from above in theNazca plateau, in Southern Peru, whose origins still remain a great question mark. The lines represent some geometric figures and many animals: monkeys, whales, spiders, lizards. The whole of huge size: for example the spider is 45 meters long. On the plateau they are visible beyond 13.000 lines which form approx 800 figures.
Ma who were the Nazca? And why should they have made these drawings in the ground?
- Nazca civilization: who were they and when did they live?
- How were they traced and what were they for?
- The Mystery of the Nazca Lines: Human or Alien Work? Here are some theories!
- The Hummingbird, The Astronaut and the other famous geoglyphs:
- User questions and comments
Nazca civilization: who were they and when did they live?
According to the historical and historiographical elements in possession, the Nazca civilization developed in the st century AD. on the banks of the Aja river, in Inca region, in Peru. The existence of the Nazca was brief: it seems that decayed in the sixth century AD. The Nazca were hard workers of polychrome ceramic, on which they drew mutilated men: according to these indications it is led to think that they made human sacrifices.
The Nazca civilization is best known for Nazca lines, first discovered since pilot Eduardo Herrán Gómez de la Torre and analyzed first byPeruvian archaeologist Toribio Mejia Xesspe in 1926.
How were they traced and what were they for?
According to studies, these huge hieroglyphs were drawn between 300 BC and 500 AD., during the flowering of the Nazca, the population of the area. There are several hypotheses on the method of tracing and realization: first of all, it was highlighted that the figures are drawn from a single line that never crosses itself with itself. From the point of view of the technique, the lines were drawn by sweeping away the reddish color and the pebbles that make up the surface of the desert, to let the white sand emerge first blanket. The particular arid, dry and windless climate of the area has done the rest, allowing to perfectly preserve these mysterious lines.
Scholars believe that the Nazca we have at first he drew the figures and animals on a small scale, to then realize them in large dimensions.
There are different opinions on their usefulness: there are those who think they served as channel for irrigation, which delimited a center of worship, that they had a astronomical significance.
The Mystery of the Nazca Lines: Human or Alien Work? Here are some theories!
Many theories have come and gone over the years: who made the Nazca lines? Humans or aliens? Some think that these hieroglyphs are the work of aliens, looking for a place to land on earth. Someone else sees the Nazca lines as a track for racing competitions. And then...
- Theory 1: Landing site for aliens
According to Erich von Däniken, the lines were a landing place for aliens. The lines would be drawn by the landing spaceships. However, someone rejected this hypothesis because of the ground, too soft to withstand heavy vehicles. But what if Erich von Däniken was right and the aliens at the time landed on earth to see what was happening here and to be able to take samples of the soil, rich in minerals?
- Theory 2: Track for running races
According to G. Von Bruenig, the lines were made by humans and were used for running races. This is one of the less accredited hypotheses, but nevertheless of great interest: it raises the importance of sporting activity already in antiquity.
- Theory 3: Sacred Paths and centers of worship
Johan Reinhard thinks the lines were represented by humans and represented sacred paths that led to a place where he could worship mountains and other natural elements. Hans Horkheimer in 1947 theorized that these lines were paths that indicated how and where to walk during religious ceremonies.
- Theory 4: Gods from the stars
According to scholars Morrison and Rostworowski, these lines were drawn by the ancients who thought that the legendary hero-teacher Viracocha, also known as Quetzalcoatl, he would return to earth. The hieroglyphs would serve as a reference point for him.
- Theory 5: Astronomical calendar
The German archaeologist Maria Reiche studied hieroglyphs with passion, and assumed that the lines had a correlation with astronomy. For example, he identified in the figure of the monkey theGreat Bear and in that of the dolphin and the spider there constellation of Orion.
- Theory 6: Bond with water
One of the most credible versions is the one that sees the Nazca lines closely connected with water. Some scholars saw in these hieroglyphs some real ones irrigation channels. David Johnson instead argues that the lines were one map of underground water resources, triggering a ritual whereby a person would only be able to get water if he read the lines correctly.
The Hummingbird, The Astronaut and the other famous geoglyphs:
Some geometric figures and animal figures have entered the collective imagination and become real symbols. Here are the 10 most famous hieroglyphs, with their geographical coordinates:
- Astronauta, 14°44′42.79″S 75°04′47.08″W
- Colibrì, 14°41′31.92″S 75°08′57.84″W
- Scimmia, 14°42′26.07″S 75°08′19.5″W
- Balena, 14°48′59.22″S 74°59′41.28″W
- Dog, 14 ° 42.384'S, 75 ° 7.846 W.
- Condor, 14°41′51.46″S 75°07′35.98″W
- Lucertola, 14°41′36.96″S 75°06′54″W
- Ragno, 14°41′39.84″S 75°07′21.72″W
- Spirale, 14°41′17.65″S 75°07′24.23″W
- Pappagallo, 14°41′22.36″S 75°06′28.28″W