The American Constitution

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Joel Fulleda
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AMERICAN CONSTITUTION: SEPTEMBER 17, 1787

PREAMBLE

We, the people of the United States, for the purpose of further perfecting our Union, to ensure justice, to ensure tranquility within, to provide for common defense, to promote general well-being and to safeguard for ourselves and our post the gift of freedom, we decree and establish this Constitution of the United States of America.

Article 1


Section 1. - All legislative powers conferred by this Act are delegated to a United States Congress consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives.


Section 2. - The House of Representatives will be composed of members elected every two years by the people of the various States, and the voters of each State must have the requisites required to be electors of the largest Chamber of the State Parliament. Anyone who has not reached the age of 25, has not been a citizen of the United States for seven years and is not, during the election period, resident in the State in which he will be elected cannot be a Representative.

Representatives and direct taxes will be divided among the various States that are part of the Union according to the number of their inhabitants; this number will be determined by adding to the total of free men - including those subjected to services for a limited period and excluding Indians not subject to taxes - three-fifths of the remainder of the population.

The census must be done within three years of the first meeting of the United States Congress, and every ten years thereafter, according to the rules that will be established by law. The number of Representatives will not exceed that of one for every thirty thousand inhabitants, but each State will have at least one Representative; and until that count is made, the State of New Hampshire will have the right to elect three Representatives, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York State six, that of New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, South Carolina five, Georgia three.



When vacant seats remain in the representation of a state, already organs of the executive power will conduct elections to fill those seats. The House of Representatives will elect its President and other offices and it alone will have the power to impeach the President or members of Congress.

Section 3. - The United States Senate will consist of two Senators from each state, elected by the local legislature for a term of six years; and each Senator will have one vote. Immediately after the meeting following the first election, the Senators will be divided into three classes, possibly equal in number.

The seats of the Senators of the first class will become vacant at the end of the second year, those of the second class at the end of the fourth year, those of the third at the end of the sixth year, so that every two years a third of the Senate will be re-elected; and if in the interval between sessions of the Legislature of each State, following resignation or for any other cause, some seats remain vacant, the Executive may proceed with provisional appointments until the next session of the Legislature, which will confer the vacant seats.

Anyone who has not reached the age of 30, has not been a citizen of the United States for nine years, and is not, at the time of the election, a resident of the State in which he will be elected cannot be a Senator. The Vice President of the United States will be President of the Senate, but will not have a vote, except in the event of a tie.


The Senate will appoint his other offices, as well as a pro tempore President, who will preside in the absence of the Vice President, or when he is serving as President of the United States. The Senate will have the exclusive power to judge indictments against members of the government and parliamentarians (impeachment). Where it meets for this purpose, its members will take an oath or pledge their word.


Where the President of the United States is to be judged, the President of the Supreme Court will preside; no accused may be found guilty without a two-thirds majority of the members present. The convictions pronounced in such cases will have no other effect than to remove the accused from the office he occupies and to prohibit him, in the United States, from accessing any honorary, trusted, or paid office; but the condemned person may nevertheless be subject to, and subjected to, incrimination, trial, judgment and punishment according to ordinary laws.

Section 4. - The date, the places and the modalities of the elections of the Senators and the Representatives will be fixed in each State by the relative Legislatures; but the federal Congress may at any time enact or modify these rules, except as regards the places where Senators are to be elected. The Congress will meet at least once a year and this meeting must take place on the first Monday of December, unless another day is established by law.

Section 5. - Each of the two Houses will be judge of the elections, re-elections and requirements of its members. The quorum for each of the two Chambers will be made up of half plus one; if the quorum is not reached, each Chamber may update the session from day to day, and be authorized to force the absent members to intervene, resorting to those means and imposing those sanctions which it deems appropriate.


Each Chamber will draw up its own regulations, punish its members for misconduct, and may, by a two-thirds majority, proceed with expulsions. Each House will draw up minutes of its sessions and publish them periodically, except for what it believes should remain secret; the votes in favor and against of the members of each House, on any question, will be, at the request of one fifth of the members present, included in the minutes.


Neither of the two Houses, during the session of the Congress, may, without the consent of the other, postpone the session for more than three days, or move to a place other than that in which the two Houses are seated.

Section 6. - Senators and Representatives will receive an indemnity for their functions, which will be determined by law and paid by the United States Treasury. In no case, except for treason, felony and disturbance of the public peace, can they be arrested, either during the session, or in going to it or leaving it; nor, for the speeches delivered or for the opinions held in the respective Chambers, may they be subjected to questioning in any other place.

No Senator and Representative, for the entire term for which he is elected, may be called to hold any civilian office under the United States that has been established, or whose remuneration has been increased, during that period; and no one who has a post in the employ of the United States may be a member of either House even if he retains that post.

Section 7. - All bills relating to the imposition of taxes must originate in the House of Representatives; the Senate, however, can contribute to it, as for other bills, by proposing amendments. Any bill that has been approved by the Senate and the House of Representatives must be presented to the President of the United States before becoming law.

If he approves it, he will sign it; otherwise, it will send it back with its observations to the Chamber from which it was proposed, and the latter will enter these observations in full in the minutes and discuss the project again. If, after this second discussion, two thirds of the members of the Chamber concerned declare themselves in favor of the project, it will be sent, together with the observations of the President, to the other Chamber, from which it will be discussed in a similar manner; and even if it is approved with a two-thirds majority, it will acquire the force of law.

In such cases, however, the votes of both chambers must be cast by roll call, and the names of the voters for and against will be noted in the minutes of the respective chambers. If within ten days (excluding Sundays) from the moment in which it is presented to him, the President does not return a bill, it will acquire the force of law as if he had signed it, unless Congress, by adjournment, makes it impossible. that the project itself be sent back to him; in which case the project will not acquire the force of law.

All mandates, resolutions or votes, for which the concurrence of the two Houses is necessary (except in the case of updates) must be submitted to the President of the United States, and approved by him before they come into force; or, if he rejects them, they must again be approved by two thirds of the two Houses, in accordance with the requirements for draft laws.

Section 8. - The Congress will have the power: to impose and collect taxes, duties, taxes and duties; to pay public debts and to provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. Rights, taxes, duties and duties must, however, be uniform throughout the United States; to borrow on behalf of the United States; to regulate trade with other nations, and between different states and with Indian tribes; to establish general rules for naturalization, and general bankruptcy laws in the United States; to mint money, to establish the value of the currency itself and of foreign ones, and to fix the various types of weights and measures; to punish any counterfeiting of the securities and currency of the United States; to establish postal offices and services; to promote the progress of science and useful arts, guaranteeing for limited periods to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their writings and discoveries; to establish lower courts than the Supreme Court; to define and punish acts of piracy and felony committed on the high seas, as well as offenses against the rights of nations; to declare war, to grant prey and retaliation permits, and to establish rules relating to prey on land and at sea; to recruit and maintain armies; no amount, however, can be allocated for this purpose for more than two years; to create and maintain a Navy; to establish rules for the administration and organization of land and sea forces; to see to it that the militia is summoned to enforce Union laws, to suppress uprisings and to repel invasions; to ensure that the militia is organized, armed and disciplined and to dispose of that part of it that can be employed in the service of the United States, leaving to the respective States the appointment of officers and the care of training the units according to the prescribed disciplinary rules by Congress; to exercise the exclusive right to legislate in any case in that district (not exceeding ten square miles) which by cession of particular States, and with the consent of Congress, becomes the seat of the government of the United States; and to exercise similar authority over all the places acquired, with the consent of the Legislature of the State in which they are located, for the construction of fortresses, warehouses, arsenals, construction sites and other buildings of public utility; to make all the necessary and appropriate laws for the exercise of the above powers, and of all the other powers of which this Constitution invests the government of the United States, or its departments and offices (implied powers clause).
Section 9. - The immigration or the introduction of those persons which the present states may deem it convenient to admit cannot be prohibited by Congress before the year 1808; but a tax or fee not exceeding ten dollars per person may be imposed on such an introduction. The privilege of the habeas corpus will not be suspended unless, in the event of a rebellion or invasion, public security requires it. No decree limiting the rights of the citizen can be approved, nor any retroactive criminal law. No testatic or other direct tax may be imposed, except in proportion to the census and assessment of the assets of each, which must be carried out as provided above in this law. No taxes and no rights can be established on goods exported from any of the states. No preference should be given by commercial or fiscal regulations to the ports of one state over those of another; and ships bound for a State or from its ports may not be forced to enter those of another State or to pay any fees there. No sum must be withdrawn from the Treasury, if not following appropriations decreed by law; and a regular account of public revenues and expenditures will have to be published periodically. The United States will not confer any titles of nobility; no person occupying a paid or trusted position in the United States may, without the consent of Congress, accept gifts, emoluments, offices or titles from a foreign sovereign, prince, or state. Section 10. - No State will be able to conclude treaties, alliances or confederal pacts; or grant permits of prey or retaliation; o mint coins; o issue debt securities; o allow the payment of debts to take place in any other form than by means of gold or silver coins; o approve any decree limiting the rights of the citizen, any retroactive criminal law, or laws that lead to an exception to the obligations deriving from contracts; or confer titles of nobility. No State may, without the consent of Congress, establish taxes or rights of any kind on imports and exports, except as is absolutely essential to enforce its inspection laws; and the net proceeds of all duties and taxes imposed by any state on imports and exports will be available to the United States Treasury; and all related laws will be subject to review and control by Congress.

Article 2

Section 1. - The President of the United States of America will be invested with executive power. He will remain in office for the period of four years, and his election and that of the Vice-President, elected for the same period, will take place as follows: Each State will appoint, in the manner to be established by its legislative bodies, a number of electors equal to the total number of Senators and Representatives that the State has the right to send to Congress; however, no Senator and Representative, nor any person in public office or paid employment from the United States, may be appointed an elector. The voters will meet in their respective states and vote by secret ballot for two people, of which at least one must not belong to the same state as the voters. They will compile a list of all those who have obtained votes and the number of votes collected by each; this list will be signed, authenticated by them and transmitted, under seal, to the seat of the government of the United States, addressed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate, in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives, will open the authenticated lists and then the votes will be counted. The person who has obtained the highest number of votes will be President, provided that this number represents the majority of the total number of chosen voters: and if there is more than one who has obtained this majority, with an equal number of votes, then the Chamber of the Representatives will immediately proceed to choose one of them for President, by secret ballot; if, on the other hand, no one collects the majority, the Chamber will proceed in the same way to elect the President from among the five who have collected the highest number of votes. In the election of the President, however, the votes will be cast by state and the representation of each state will have only one vote. The quorum will be constituted for this purpose by the representation, made up of one or more members, of two thirds of the States, but for the validity of the election the votes of half plus one of all the States will be required. In any case, after the election of the President, the person who has collected the highest number of votes of the electors will be appointed Vice-President. If two or more candidates are found with an equal number of votes, the Senate will elect the Vice-President from among them by secret ballot. Congress can determine the time for the election of the electors, and the day on which they are to cast their votes; day that must be the same for all of the United States. No person, who is not by birth or, in any case, a citizen of the United States at the time this Constitution is adopted, can be eligible for the office of President, nor can anyone who has not reached the age of 35 be eligible for this office. and have not been a resident of the United States for 14 years. In case of removal of the President from office, or of death, resignation, or inability to fulfill the functions and duties inherent to his office, this will be entrusted to the Vice President, and the Congress may provide by law, in case of removal, of morale, resignation or incapacity of both the President and the Vice-President, declaring which public official will have to fulfill the functions of President, and this official will fulfill them until the cause of disability ceases, or the new President is elected. The President will receive for his services, at set times, an indemnity, which cannot be increased or decreased during the period for which he was elected; and he shall not receive any other emolument from the United States or any of the States during that period.
Section 2. - The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army, the United States Navy and the Militia of the various States, when the latter is called to the active service of the United States; he may seek the written opinion of the chief official of each of the executive departments on any matter relating to the duties of their respective offices, and will also have the authority to grant reductions in sentences and pardons for all crimes committed against the United States, except in the case of indictment proceedings by the Chamber (impeachment). He will have the power, on the opinion and with the consent of the Senate, to conclude treaties, provided that there is the approval of two thirds of the Senators present; designate and, upon the opinion and consent of the Senate, appoint ambassadors, other diplomats and consuls, Supreme Court judges and all other United States public officials whose appointment is not otherwise provided for in this Constitution, and who must be established by a specific law; but Congress may, by law, devolve those nominations of lower-ranking officials that it deems appropriate to the President alone, to the judicial courts, or to the heads of individual departments. The President will have the power to assign the positions that become vacant in the interval between one session and another of the Senate, through provisional appointments, which will be valid until the end of the next session.
Section 3. - The President will inform the Congress from time to time on the conditions of the Union and will recommend to the Congress those measures which he deems necessary and convenient; he may, in extraordinary circumstances, convene both chambers, or one of them, and, in the event of dissent between the chambers as to the duration of the update, he can fix the one that he considers convenient; he will receive the ambassadors and other diplomats; he will ensure full compliance with the laws and sanction the appointment of all United States officials.
Section 4. - The President, Vice President and any other civil servants of the United States will be removed from office where. following an accusation brought by the Chamber, they are found guilty of treason. of extortion or other serious crimes.

Article 3

Section 1. - The judicial power of the United States will be entrusted to a Supreme Court and to those lower courts that Congress may from time to time create and establish. The judges of the Supreme Court and those of the lower courts will keep their office until they make themselves unworthy by their conduct (during good behavior), and at fixed times they will receive an indemnity for their services which cannot be diminished until they will remain in office.
Section 2. - The judicial power will extend to all cases, of law and of equity, which arise in the context of this Constitution, the laws of the United States and the treaties entered into or to be entered into, under their authority; to all cases concerning ambassadors, other diplomatic representatives and consuls; to all cases involving the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; disputes between two or more States, between a State and the citizens of another State, between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same State who claim land on the basis of concessions of other States, and between a State or its citizens and States , citizens or foreign subjects. In all cases involving ambassadors, other diplomatic representatives, or consuls and in those in which a State is a party to the dispute, the Supreme Court will have exclusive jurisdiction. In all the other cases mentioned above, the Supreme Court will have appellate jurisdiction, both in law and in fact, with the exceptions and rules that will be established by Congress. The judgment for all crimes, except in cases of accusation brought by the House of Representatives, must be made by jury; and such judgment will be held in the State where said crimes were committed; when the crime has not been committed in any of the States, the trial will be held in the place or places that have been designated by law by Congress.
Section 3. - It will be considered treason against the United States only to have taken up arms against it, or to have made common cause with enemies of the United States, providing them with aid and relief. No one will be found guilty of high treason, except on the testimony of two people who were present at the same flagrant act, or when he confesses his guilt in public trial. The power to issue a high treason conviction rests with Congress; but no sentence of treason can involve loss of rights for the descendants, or confiscation of assets except during the life of the guilty party.

Article 4

Section 1. - In each State, full trust and credit will be given to the acts, public documents and judicial proceedings of the other States; and Congress may, by means of general laws, prescribe the manner in which the validity of such acts, documents and proceedings is to be determined, as well as the effects of the validity itself.
Section 2. - Citizens of every state have the right, in every other state, to all the privileges and immunities inherent in the status of citizens. Any person accused in a State of high treason, felony or other crime and who has evaded justice and is found in another State, will be - at the request of the executive bodies of the State from which he fled - surrendered and conducted to the State. which has jurisdiction for the crime attributed to it. No person subjected to the provision of service or work in one of the States, according to the laws in force there, and who has taken refuge in another State may, by virtue of any law or regulation in force therein, be exempted from such services. or work; but, at the request of the interested party, she will be returned to the party to whom these services are due.
Section 3. - New States may be admitted to the Union by decision of the Congress; but no new state can be constituted within the jurisdiction of any already existing state; and no State may be formed by the meeting of two or more existing States, or part of them, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of Congress. Congress will have the authority to dispose of the territory and other property belonging to the United States and to establish all such regulations and measures as may be deemed necessary in that territory. Nothing in this Constitution may be interpreted in a way prejudicial to any right that may be invoked by the United States or by any of the individual States.
Section 4. - The United States will guarantee every State of the Union the republican form of government, and will protect every State against any invasion and - at the request of the legislative bodies or the Executive Power (when the Legislature cannot be summoned) - against violence internal.

Article 5

The Congress, whenever two thirds of the Houses deem it necessary, will propose amendments to this Constitution, or, at the request of two thirds of the legislatures of the various States, will convene a Convention to propose the amendments. In both cases, the amendments will be valid for all purposes, as part of this Constitution, when they have been ratified by the legislatures of three quarters of the States, or by three quarters of the Conventions gathered for this purpose in each of the States, depending on whether the 'one or the other method of ratification has been prescribed by Congress; however it remains established that no amendment, prior to the year 1808, may modify in any way the first and fourth paragraphs of Section 9 of Article 1, and that no State, without its own consent, may be deprived of equal representation in the Senate.

Article 6

All debts incurred and obligations assumed prior to this Constitution will apply to the United States under this Constitution as they were under the Confederation. This Constitution and the laws of the United States to be made as a result of it, and all treaties concluded, or to be concluded, under the authority of the United States, will constitute the supreme law of the country (the supreme Law of the Land). ; and the judges of each State will be bound to comply with them, whatever the provisions to the contrary in the Constitution or in the legislation of any single State may be. The Senators and Representatives mentioned above, the members of the Legislatures of the individual States and all the representatives of the executive and judicial powers, both of the United States and of each individual State, will be bound, by oath and by declaration of their honor, to defend this Constitution; but no profession of religious faith will ever be imposed as necessary to fill a United States office or public office.

Article 7

Ratification by the Assemblies of nine States will be sufficient to bring this Constitution into force in the States which have thus ratified it. Drafted in the Assembly by unanimous consent of the States present, on the seventeenth day of September in the year of the Lord 1787, and the twelfth day of the independence of the United States of America. In witness whereof we have affixed our signatures below.

AMENDMENTS

I (15.12.1791)

Congress will not be able to make any law for the recognition of any religion, or to prohibit its free worship; o to restrict freedom of speech or of the press; o the right that citizens have to assemble peacefully and to petition the government for redress of wrongs suffered.

II (id. 1791)

Since a well-ordered militia is necessary for the security of a free state, the right of citizens to keep and bear arms cannot be violated.

III (id. 1791)

No soldier, in peacetime, may be accommodated in a private house without the owner's consent; nor will he be able to do so in times of war, except in the ways that will be prescribed by law.

IV (id. 1791)

The right of citizens to enjoy security as regards their person, their home, their papers and their belongings, against unjustified searches and seizures, cannot be violated; and no judicial warrant may be issued, except on the basis of well-founded suppositions, supported by an oath or a declaration of honor and with a specific description of the place to be searched, and of the persons to be arrested or of the things to be seized.

V (id. 1791)

No one will be held accountable for a crime involving capital punishment, or otherwise infamous, except through denunciation or accusation made by a grand jury, unless the crime is committed by individuals belonging to the forces of land or sea, or to the militia, when it is on active duty, in times of war or public danger; nor can anyone be subjected twice, for the same crime, to a procedure that compromises his life or his physical integrity; nor can he be obliged, in any criminal case, to testify against himself, nor can he be deprived of life, liberty or property, except as a result of regular legal proceedings (without due process of law); and no property may be destined for public use without fair compensation.

VI (id. 1791)

In any criminal trial, the accused will have the right to be tried promptly and publicly by an impartial jury of the state and district in which the offense was committed (the limits of which district will have previously been determined by law); and he will have the right to be informed of the nature and reason of the accusation; to be confronted with witnesses in his favor, and to be assisted by a lawyer for his defense.

VII (id. 1791)

In cases to be tried under common law, the right to jury judgment will be maintained whenever the subject matter of the dispute exceeds the value of twenty dollars; and no facts judged by a jury may be re-examined in any other court of the United States, except under the rules of common law.

VIII (id. 1791)

There should be no exorbitant bail, no excessive fines, or the infliction of cruel and unusual punishments.

IX (id. 1791)

The enumeration of some rights made in the Constitution cannot be interpreted in such a way that other rights maintained by citizens remain denied or impaired.

X (id. 1791)

Powers not delegated by the Constitution to the United States, or not prohibited by it to States, are reserved to the respective States, or to the people (residual powers clause).

XI (8.1.1798)

The United States Federal Judiciary shall not be called upon to decide in any trial, whether of law or equity, initiated or prosecuted against a United States by citizens of another state or by subjects of any foreign state.

XII (25.9.1804)

The electors will meet in their respective States and will proceed by secret ballot to appoint the President and the Vice President, one of whom at least must not be a resident of the same State as the electors; they will designate on a ballot the person they vote for as President and on a separate ballot paper the person they vote for as Vice President; will compile separate lists of all persons designated for the Vice-Presidency, and the number of votes collected by each: these lists will be signed, authenticated, and sent, sealed, to the seat of the United States government, addressed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate, present the two Chambers, will open all the minutes and the counting of the votes will be carried out. The one who has obtained the highest number of votes for the Presidency will be President, provided that this number represents the majority of the total number of voters assembled. If no one reaches this majority, the House of Representatives will immediately choose the President, by secret ballot, from among the three candidates who have obtained the highest number of votes for the Presidency. But, in this choice of the President, the votes will be counted for each State, with the representation of each State having only one vote. The quorum for this ballot will be constituted by the representation of two thirds of the States, composed of one or more members, and the majority of all States will be necessary for the choice. If the House of Representatives does not choose, the President, when this choice is devolved to it, before the fourth day of the following month of March, the Vice President will act as President, as in the case of death or other constitutional incapacity of the President. The one who obtains a greater number of votes for the Vice-Presidency will be Vice-President, provided that this number represents the majority of the total number of voters assembled; and if no one reaches this majority, the Senate will choose the Vice-President from among the two candidates who have obtained the highest number of votes: the presence of two thirds of the Senators and the majority of the total number are necessary for this choice. Moreover, no one who is constitutionally ineligible for the office of President will be eligible for that of Vice President of the United States.

XIII (18.12.1865)

Section I. - Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude may exist in the United States, or in any place under its jurisdiction, except as punishment for a crime for which the defendant has been duly convicted.
Section 2. - The Congress is charged with enacting the rules necessary to enforce compliance with this article.

XIV (28.7.1868)

Section 1. - All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to its jurisdiction are citizens of the United States and the state in which they reside. No state will enact or enforce any law that restricts the privileges or immunities of US citizens; likewise, no state will deprive any person of life, liberty, or property unless following a regular legal process (without due process of law), nor will it refuse anyone within the limits of its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws (the equal protection of the laws).
Section 2. - The Representatives will be divided among the different States in proportion to the population of these, taking into account the totality of the inhabitants of each State, with the exception of non-taxed Indians. But if the right to vote in any election for the choice of voters for the President and Vice President of the United States, or Representatives in Congress, or representatives of the executive and judiciary of a State or members of its Legislature, is refused to some of the male inhabitants of that State who are twenty-one years of age and are citizens of the United States, or if this right is restricted in any way, other than through participation in a rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation of this State will be reduced in proportion to the number of citizens who have been excluded, compared with the total number of male citizens of that State who have reached the age of twenty-one.
Section 3. - May not be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or an elector of the President or Vice President, or hold any civilian or military employment dependent on the United States or any State who, previously having - as a United States public servant congressman , or a member of the Legislature of a State, or a representative of the Executive or Judicial Power of a State - sworn to defend the Constitution of the United States, participated in an insurrection or rebellion against the Nation itself, or provided aid or assistance to his enemies. But Congress will be able, with the vote of two thirds of the members of each House, to eliminate this reason for inability.
Section 4. - The validity of the public debt of the United States, contracted in accordance with the law, including debts arising from the payment of pensions and rewards in respect of services rendered for the suppression of uprisings or rebellions, can never be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state will be able to take charge of, or pay any debt, or any obligation contracted to assist in the uprising or rebellion against the United States, nor any compensation claimed for the loss or emancipation of anyone. slave; all debts, obligations, claims for similar titles will be held as illegal and null.
Section 5. - Congress is charged with enacting the necessary regulations for the application of this article.

XV (30.3.1870)

Section 1. - The right to vote of United States citizens may not be denied or restricted by the United States, or by any state, for reasons of race or previous servile status.
Section 2. - Congress is charged with enacting the necessary regulations for the application of this article.

XVI (25.2.1913)

Congress will have the power to establish and demand taxes on income from any source, without dividing them among the various States and without having to take into account any census or evaluation.

XVII (31.5.1913)

The United States Senate will be composed of two Senators from each state, elected by its population for a term of six years: and each Senator will have the right to only one vote. The voters of each state must meet the same requirements as are required to be electors of the more numerous of the two branches of the state legislature. Should one of the seats pertaining to a State become vacant in the Senate, the Executive Power of that State will order that elections be held to fill the vacant seat; unless the Legislature of the State in question authorizes the local executive power to proceed with provisional appointments, valid until the people provide to cover the vacancy with elections to be held when the Legislature itself decides. This amendment must not be interpreted as affecting the election or tenure of any chosen Senator before the amendment becomes an integral part of the Constitution.

XVIII (1920)

Section l. - Starting one year after the ratification of this article, and as a result of it, the manufacture, sale and transportation of harmful liquors for the purpose of consumption, as well as the import and export of liquors, are prohibited within the borders of the United States. export of the same from and to the territory of the United States and all regions subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2. - The Congress and the various States are authorized to enact the necessary regulations for the application of this article.
Section 3. - This article will not be valid until it has been ratified by the legislative bodies of the individual States as an amendment to the Constitution, as provided for by the latter within seven years from the date on which it will be submitted by Congress to the individual States for that. ratification.

1920th (XNUMX)

The right to vote conferred on citizens of the United States may not be denied or restricted by the United States or by any of the States on account of sex. Congress is charged with enacting the necessary regulations for the application of this article.

XX (1933)

Section 1. - The term of office of the President and Vice-President will end at noon on January 20, while the term in office of the Senators and Representatives will end at 3 noon on January XNUMX of the years in which their respective mandates should have expired if the this article had not been ratified; their successors will take office on the same dates.
Section 2. - The Congress will meet at least once a year, and the session must begin at noon on January 3, unless the Congress itself stipulates another day by law.
Section 3. - If at the time fixed for the beginning of the presidential term the elected President is deceased, the Vice President will become President. If a President has not been appointed before the time fixed for the beginning of the mandate, or if the President-elect has not demonstrated that he possesses the necessary requirements, the Vice-President will act as President until a President; and, in the event that neither an elected President nor an elected Vice-President has demonstrated that they possess the necessary requirements, the Congress will provide by law to indicate who will act as President or the way in which the person who will serve as President must be designated. ; the person so designated will exercise presidential functions until a President or Vice-President are formally proclaimed.
Section 4. - The Congress may, by law, take the necessary measures in the event of the death of one of the persons among whom the House of Representatives chooses the President, where the right of choice is vested in it, and in the case of the death of one of the persons among whom the Senate chooses the Vice-President, where the right of choice is devolved to him.
Section 5. - Sections 1) and 2) will enter into force on October 15 following the ratification of this article.
Section 6. - This article will not be valid until it has been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three quarters of the States, within seven years from the date on which it is submitted for their approval.

XXI (1933)

Section 1. - Article XVIII amending the United States Constitution is repealed.
Section 2. - Transportation or importation into any United States State, Territory, or Possession of noxious liquor for sale or consumption, in violation of applicable laws, is prohibited herein.
Section 3.- This article will not be valid until it is ratified as an amendment to the Constitution, and, as foreseen by this, by the Conventions elected in the various States, within seven years from the date on which it is submitted by the Congress to the States themselves. for ratification.

XXII (1951)

No one may be elected more than twice to the presidential office and no one who has held that office or exercised the functions of President for more than two years during the term of office of another elected President may be elected more than once at the presidential office. This article will not apply to the President who was in office at the time the article was proposed by Congress and it will not prevent anyone from holding the office of President or acting as President during the term during which this article enters into force, to hold this office or exercise its functions for the remainder of the mandate.

XXIII (1961)

Section 1. - The District where the seat of the United States Government is established shall elect, in accordance with the procedure to be determined by Congress, a number of electors for the President and Vice President equal to the total number of Senators and Representatives in Congress, to whom the District itself would have the right, if it were constituted in a State, but this number may in no case exceed that of the voters designated by the least populous State of the Union; the voters themselves will join those designated by the States and will be considered, for the purposes of the election of the President and Vice-President, as designated by a State; they will meet in the District territory and fulfill the duties assigned to them by the Twelfth Amendment.
Section 2. - Congress is charged with enacting the necessary regulations to enforce compliance with this article.

XXIV (1964)

Section 1. - The right of United States citizens to be registered on the electoral roll for elections, whether primary or otherwise, of the President and Vice President, of the presidential voters and of the Senators and Representatives in Congress will not be rejected or restricted, either by the United States or by any single state, on the grounds that the individual has not paid a poll tax or any other tax.
Section 2. - Congress is charged with enacting the necessary regulations to enforce compliance with this article.

XXV (1967)

Section 1. - Upon removal from office, death or resignation of the President, the Vice President of the United States will become President.
Section 2. - In the event of vacancy of the Vice-Presidency, the President appoints a new Vice-President, who takes possession of the office after the Chambers have ratified his appointment by an absolute majority of their members.
Section 3. - If the President notifies, in writing, the pro tempore President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives that he is unable to exercise the powers and duties of his office, the same are then exercised by the Vice President of the United States, as alternate President, until the President communicates, in writing, to the aforementioned bodies that he is able to resume their functions.
Section 4. - If the Vice-President and the majority of the principal managers of the ministerial departments, or of another body designated by law by the Congress, communicate in writing to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives that the President is not in able to exercise the powers and duties of his office, these are then immediately assumed by the Vice President, as alternate President. But if, subsequently, the President transmits a written declaration to the pro tempore President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, certifying that there is no longer any of his incapacity in this regard, then he can summarize the powers and duties of his office, to unless, within four days, the Vice-President and the majority of the principal managers of the ministerial departments, or of another body designated by law by Congress, in turn send a written declaration to the pro tempore President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of Representatives , certifying that the President is unable to exercise the powers and duties of his office. In this case the Congress will take a decision on the matter, meeting within forty-eight hours for this purpose if it is not in session. If at the end of twenty-one days from the receipt of the second declaration, or at the end of twenty-one days from the date of the convocation if the Congress is not in session, both chambers decide on the permanence of the impediment of the President, with a majority of two thirds of the its members, the Vice President will then continue to perform the functions of Alternate Vice President; otherwise, the President will immediately summarize the powers and duties of his office.


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