The 12 current European Monarchies and their Sovereigns

Who I am
Joel Fulleda

Author and references

Kings and Queens are not just a thing of the past: even today many countries have their own monarchy, but over the years it has changed forms and has undergone some changes in power. For example, there are very few today absolute monarchies; instead those predominate MPs. The constitutional monarchies.
We see what monarchies exist today in Europe.


  1. Belgium
  2. UK
  3. Denmark
  4. Liechtenstein
  5. Luxembourg
  6. Norway
  7. Netherlands
  8. Monaco
  9. Spain
  10. Sweden
  11. Vatican City
  12. Andorra
  13. User questions and comments

1 - Belgium

  • Form of government: Federal Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Flippo
  • Year the monarchy began: 1831

The Belgian monarchy, of a parliamentary type, does not see an immediate passage to power in the event of the death of its predecessor: the new King is elected only after the constitutional oath. The Belgian monarchy has always conformed to the principles of liberal revolution.

2 - United Kingdom

  • Form of government: Constitutive Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Elizabeth II
  • Year the monarchy began: 927

The British one is one of the oldest monarchies in the world: although the starting date is questionable, it is traced back to the rule of King Athelstano started in 927. For over 4 centuries, however, complete sovereignty is no longer in the hands of the monarch: in 1689 with the Bill of Rights in fact, the parliamentary sovereignty.

3 - Denmark

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Margaret II
  • Year the monarchy began: 933

The Danish monarchy is also one of the most historic in the world. The first King who unified the then fragmented kingdom of Denmark was Aroldo I Tooth Blue, in office since 933. Up to the 1900 Denmark was one constitutional monarchy and, before that, until 1660, a absolute monarchy.

4 - Liechtenstein

  • Form of government: Constitutional Monarchy
  • Name of the sovereign: Giovanni Adamo II (titular), Luigi (regent)
  • Year the monarchy began: 1608

Rather than monarchy, in the case of Liechtenstein we speak of "principality". The first prince was Charles I, who reigned from 1608 to 1627. The current Prince John Adam II in 2004 sold the decision-making power to his son Luigi.

5 - Luxembourg

  • Form of government: Parliamentary monarchy (Grand Duchy)
  • Name of the ruler: Henry
  • Year the monarchy began: 963

The history of the Duchy of Luxembourg has its origins towards the end of the 1815st century AD. In the Duchy of Luxembourg was elevated to the title of Grand Duchy. Currently Luxembourg is a parliamentary monarchy with the legislative power entrusted to the unicameral parliament.

6 - Norway

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Harald V
  • Year the monarchy began: 872

Despite initial inaccurate information, it is estimated that the kingdom of Norway began in 872 with Harald I. Today functions of the King I am above all ceremonial. He also formally appoints the ministers.

7 - Netherlands

  • Form of government: Constitutional Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: William Alexander
  • Year the monarchy began: 1747

Although the Kingdom of the Netherlands existed before, it was only in 1747 that the constitutional monarchy was officially declared, which later became a parliamentary. Also in this case the King has a mainly ceremonial role. Executive power is in the hands of the government.

8 - Munich

  • Form of government: Constitutional Monarchy (principality)
  • Name of the ruler: Albert II
  • Year the monarchy began: 1297

Also in the case of Monaco we speak of a Principality: the current Prince is Albert II. Since 1911 the Principality of Monaco is one hereditary constitutional monarchy, with a system of single-chamber government.

9 - Spain

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Philip VI
  • Year the monarchy began: 1479

The Spanish monarchy has one behind it glorious history of sovereignty. For several centuries the royals of spain were at the head of a vast colonial empire. Today the King has a role of representation of guarantor of unity and democracy.

10 - Sweden

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the sovereign: Carlo XVI Gustavo
  • Year the monarchy began: 945

The history of the Swedish rulers is also very old and alternating between different families. The parliamentarism, already present 3 centuries ago, it was reintroduced in 1917 by Gustavo V of Sweden.

11 - Vatican City

  • Form of government: Elective hierocratic absolute theocratic monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Pope Francis
  • Year the monarchy began: 752

And here is the longest monarchy in the world: the Papal one, in force from 752 to 1870 with the name of Papal State and since 1929 as State of the Vatican City. The monarchy of the Vatican City is absolute and also defined "hierocratic", or with the sovereignty exercised in a symbolic way by divinity. It's about a monarchy by election.

12 - Andorra

  • Form of government: Parliamentary diarchy (principality)
  • Name of the sovereign: CopPrince Joan-Enric Vives (Bishop of La Seu D'urgell) and CopPrince Emmanuel Macron (President of the French Republic)
  • Year the monarchy began: 1278

Andorra is a microstate located in the Pyrenees, between Spain and France. His principality it's kind of parliamentary, and is defined "diarchic"since the regency belongs to two persons exercising the same power with equal dignity: Andorran co-principalities are the President of France and Bishop of the Spanish city of La Seu D'urgell.

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