La poverty in some countries of the world is a perennial condition, which causes constant dependence on humanitarian aid.
Dictatorships and lasting violence are certainly among the elements that make it difficult, if not impossible, for some countries, the prospect of an economic recovery, an increase in work and production, and generally an increase in the quality of life.
But what are the poorest countries in the world today?
The following list arises from the examination of the gross national income (GNI) per capita of 192 countries, present in the World Bank's database of world development indicators. GNI is calculated from all economic activities within national borders, plus the wealth produced by nationally owned entities that operate in other countries.
So let's see what they are the 10 poorest countries in the world in 2020.
10 - Gambia
E' one of the smallest countries on the African continent and, although politically and socially stable, it is also one of the poorest countries, where natural resources are limited. In fact, despite the dictatorship that for more than 20 years devastated the territory is over, the country is having an enormous effort to mesh under the newborn democracy. The only sector you can rely on is agriculture, with wood, walnuts and cashews accounting for 80% of national exports in 2017. In Gambia a large part of the population has no access to electricity, lives in the slums and hopes to find a better life by emigrating to the West.
- GNI per capita: $ 1.471
- Population: 2,28 million (2018)
9 - Sierra Leone
Victim of one devastating civil war started from United Revolutionary Front, as well as from countless coups d'etat that occurred during the 90s due to the economic interests linked to the mineral resources of the territory, the population of Sierra Leone lives in conditions of total poverty.
Un very critical aspect of the country it's about its corruption rate, among the highest on the African continent. In recent years it has also been the scene ofEbola epidemic, which further worsened the living conditions and the mortality rate, especially infants. Currently, life expectancy in Sierra Leone is 52,2 years - the worst in the world.
- GNI per capita: $ 1.348
- Population: 7,65 million (2018)
8 - Madagascar
E' an island located in the Indian Ocean, east of the African continent. Former French colony, has been independent since 1960 and has since witnessed continuous coups that have perpetrated destruction and violence.
Even from a natural point of view, the country has suffered episodes that have brought it to its knees several times: in the last 30 years there have been cyclones, periods of severe drought, epidemics and earthquakes. The population finds work only in agriculture, which however is not enough for everyone; half of Madagascar's inhabitants are chronically undernourished and lives in poor conditions in the slums.
- GNI per capita: $ 1.339
- Population: about 26 million
7 - Mozambique
From a Portuguese colony, this southern African country, became independent in 1975 and like most of the continent's former colonies, it has experienced critical moments, with civil wars lasting decades. Despite the discovery of natural gas in recent years, the warlike condition of the country still makes the situation very critical, for which the life expectancy for the population is less than 60 years. In addition to the difficult political issue, the country also crosses a profound health crisis: a large number of people between the ages of 15 and 49 are HIV positive.
- GNI per capita: $ 1.100
- Population: 29,5 million
6 - Liberia
Since the 90s an unending civil war has completely destroyed Liberia's economy, located in West Africa and theoretically a country rich in natural resources. Millions of dead and thousands of displaced following the war, the country that remained weakly standing is also one of the most corrupt in the world, and the one with the highest rates of illiteracy. Along with rampant poverty, the health system is still paying the consequences ofEbola outbreak of 2014, which further lowered life expectancy.
- GNI per capita: $ 1.078
- Population: 4,8 million
5 - Malawi
Located in East Africa, it is among the poorest countries in the world with a very high infant mortality: one in eight children dies before the age of 5 and a very high number of people aged between 15 and 49 are HIV positive. The fight against HIV it is one of the problems facing the country every day, considering that this disease causes numerous orphans. Agriculture is the sector in which most of the population tries to hold on to survive, but hunger is one of the leading causes of death of the country.
- GNI per capita: $ 1.064
- Population: about 18 million
4 - Niger
The country gained independence from France in 1960 and has lived through years of wars and coups since then. A very small percentage of inhabitants, only 16% have access to electricity, while the rest of the population lives in rural areas, or in the slums of urban areas. Niger is undoubtedly rich in oil resources, but the large plants that arise in the country have not brought any benefit to the local population; rather the territory is also afflicted by the serious problem of atmospheric pollutionIt is no coincidence that here there are huge dumps of electronic material, most of them of foreign origin.
- GNI per capita: $ 906
- Population: about 22 million
3 - Democratic Republic of Congo
It is located in central Africa. Like other countries of the continent, here too the natural resources are considerable, the territory is in fact rich in minerals, such as copper, diamonds and gold. But really such wealth causes continuous civil wars, which produce a very high number of deaths and prevent the birth of a stable policy. There corruptionin fact, it is one of the main wounds, as is the health system, which is decidedly fragile and inadequate; infant mortality it is now a chronic phenomenon.
- GNI per capita: $ 796
- Population: about 90 million
2 - Burundi
Begun in 1994, the civil war for ethnic reasons Burundi is duration 12 years, and had the Tutsi minority and the Hutu majority as antagonists. This bloody conflict has further marked the economic and social fragility of the country. Only the 12% of the population has access to electricity and most of the inhabitants occupy rural areas, where pregnant women, despite being able to receive medical treatment, continue to die reaching very high numbers. Moreover, 60% of the population of Burundi is illiterate.
- GNI per capita: $ 686
- Population: about 11 million
1 - Central African Republic
Once again here is another African country plagued by the paradox that sanctions its condemnation: a territory rich in gold, diamonds and oil. Wars and abuses of power to control the country's wealth, they made the political situation following the independence from France in 1960 always unstable and fragile. Numerous national conflicts are also religious in nature, the Muslim minority has been fighting with the Christian majority since 2012. The population pours into rural areas, and that part that lives in urban areas organizes itself in battered slums. The Central African Republic is also the third country with the highest infant mortality rate, more than half of the inhabitants are undernourished and life expectancy is the lowest on the planet, stopping at just 52,9 years.
- GNI per capita: $ 663
- Population: about 4,6 million