History of Canada

Who I am
Martí Micolau

wikipedia.org, lonelyplanet.com

Author and references

Main historical stages

1497 - The Spanish-born navigator, John Cabot, reached the coasts of Newfoundland and Cape Breton.
1534 - Jacques Cartier explores the St Lawrence River, claims the Gulf coast of St Lawrence for France.
1583 - Newfoundland becomes the first English overseas colony.
1600 years - Competition in the fur trade between France, England and the Netherlands; Europeans exploit the existing rivalry between Indian nations to form alliances.
1627 - Birth of the Compagnia della Nuova Francia to enhance the fur trade; establishment of colonies in North America.
1670 - Hudson's Bay Company, created by London merchants. The company holds the commercial rights for the regions whose rivers flow into Hudson Bay.
1701 - 38 Indian leaders sign a Peace Treaty with France, near Montreal.

British gains

1756 - The 7 Years War began, between New France and the largest and economically strongest colonies in England. After the initial French successes, the British advanced to Montreal in 1759.
1763 - Under the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain acquires all the eastern French colonies of Mississippi including New France, which becomes a colony of Quebec.
1774 - The Quebec Act formalizes the French language and the Roman Catholic religion in the colony.
1776 - Loyalist refugees from the American Revolutionary War settle in Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec and Ontario.
1783 - Fur traders in Montreal found the North East Company. The company creates a commercial network throughout the West and North; his expeditions reach the Pacific coast.
1791 - Quebec is divided into two: Lower Canada (current Quebec) and Upper Canada (current Ontario).
1800s - Immigration continues. Thousands of people arrive each year from England, Scotland and Ireland.
1812 – 14 - American-British War of 1812, largely caused by British blockades on French ports.
1821 - The Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company merge after years of bitter rivalry.
1837/8 - Armed uprisings in Upper and Lower Canada caused hostility with the government, poverty and divisions among the people.
1841 - Creation of the United Province of Canada, which unites eastern and western Canada (Upper and Lower).

Union of Canada

1867 - The British Act of North America unites Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into the Sovereignty of Canada.
1870 - Manitoba becomes the fifth province, followed by British Columbia and Prince Edward Island.
1885 - The Canadian Pacific Railroad is completed.
1898 - The gold rush along the Yukon River; the Yukon Territory obtains an autonomous statute.
1905 - Alberta and Saskatchewan become provinces of Canada.
1914 - Outbreak of the First World War. Canada fights alongside Great Britain and France. Some French-speaking Canadians are wary of the intervention.

Autonomy from Great Britain

1931 - The Statute of Westminster grants the English dominions complete autonomy.
1939 - Outbreak of World War II: Canadian forces are active in Spain, Europe, the Atlantic and beyond.
1947 - Canada becomes a member of the Commonwealth like Great Britain.
1949 - Canada becomes a founding member of NATO.
1950 - Korean War. Canadian forces participate in the United Nations in the war effort.
1965 - The current Canadian flag is adopted, replacing the one incorporating the British flag.
1967 - Expo 67 in Montreal offers a boost to Canadian national identity. The President of France Charles de Gaulle on a visit declares 'Vive le Quebec libre' (long live the free Quebec).

The Trudeau Era

1968 - Pierre Trudeau of the Liberal Party wins the elections. Parti Quebecois (PQ) is created to encourage the complete independence of Quebec.
1970 - Members of a radical Quebec separatist group, the Front de Liberation du Quebec, kidnaps a British affairs officer and assassinates a Quebec minister.
1980 - A referendum on the separation of Quebec fails.
1982 - Canada is now completely free. The country adopts its own Constitution which includes a charter of rights.
1984 - Trudeau retires. The new elections are won by the Progressive Conservatives led by Brian Mulroney. Mulroney redefines foreign policy towards Europe and the US.
1985 - 329 people, including 280 Canadians, die in a plane crash caused by a bomb, aboard an Air-India jet that crashes on the Irish coast.
1989 - Canada United States establish free trade.
1991 - Canadian forces participate in the Gulf War by supporting Kuwait's invasion of Iraq.
1992 - Canada, the United States and Mexico define the terms of the North American Free Trade Agreements (NAFTA).

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